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 (Heb. Ko'resh), the celebrated "King of Persia" (Elam) who was
 conqueror of Babylon, and issued the decree of liberation to the Jews
 Ezr 1:1,2 He was the son of Cambyses, the prince of Persia, and was
 born about B.C. 599 In the year B.C. 559 he became king of Persia,
 the kingdom of Media being added to it partly by conquest.  Cyrus was
 a great military leader, bent on universal conquest.  Babylon fell
 before his army (B.C. 538) on the night of Belshazzar's feast
 Da 5:30 and then the ancient dominion of Assyria was also added to 
 his empire (cf., "Go up, O Elam",) Isa 21:2 Hitherto the great kings
 of the earth had only oppressed the Jews. Cyrus was to them as a
 "shepherd" Isa 44:28 45:1 God employed him in doing service to
 his ancient people. He may posibly have gained, through contact with
 the Jews, some knowledge of their religion. The "first year of Cyrus" 
 Ezr 1:1 is not the year of his elevation to power over the 
 Medes, nor over the Persians, nor the year of the fall of Babylon, 
 but the year succeeding the two years during which "Darius the Mede" 
 was viceroy in Babylon after its fall. At this time only (B.C. 536) 
 Cyrus became actual king over Palestine, which became a part of his
 Babylonian empire. The edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of Jerusalem
 marked a great epoch in the history of the Jewish people
 2Ch 36:22,23 Ezr 1:1-4 4:3 5:13-17 6:3-5 This decree was discovered
 "at Achmetha [R.V. marg., "Ecbatana"], in the palace that is in the
 province of the Medes" Ezr 6:2 A chronicle drawn up just after
 the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus, gives the history of the reign of
 Nabonidus (Nabunahid), the last king of Babylon, and of the fall of
 the Babylonian empire. In B.C. 538 there was a revolt in Southern
 Babylonia, while the army of Cyrus entered the country from the
 north. In June the Babylonian army was completely defeated at Opis, 
 and immediately afterwards Sippara opened its gates to the conqueror.  
 Gobryas (Ugbaru), the governor of Kurdistan, was then sent to 
 Babylon, which surrendered "without fighting," and the daily services 
 in the temples continued without a break. In October, Cyrus himself 
 arrived, and proclaimed a general amnesty, which was communicated by 
 Gobryas to "all the province of Babylon," of which he had been made 
 governor. Meanwhile, Nabonidus, who had concealed himself, was 
 captured, but treated honourably; and when his wife died, Cambyses, 
 the son of Cyrus, conducted the funeral. Cyrus now assumed the title 
 of "king of Babylon," claimed to be the descendant of the ancient 
 kings, and made rich offerings to the temples. At the same time he 
 allowed the foreign populations who had been deported to Babylonia to 
 return to their old homes, carrying with them the images of their 
 gods. Among these populations were the Jews, who, as they had no 
 images, took with them the sacred vessels of the temple.
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